Outreach initiatives 2009-2010
The Administrator continues with outreach initiatives aimed at raising awareness of the existence
of the Ship-source Oil Pollution Fund and its availability to provide compensation for oil pollution
caused by ships. The interest groups include private citizens, insurers, response organizations, federal
and provincial government agencies, and commercial organizations. This outreach provides an
opportunity for the Administrator to further his personal understanding of the perspectives of individual
claimants, shipowners, clean-up contractors and other stakeholders who respond to an oil
spill incident and, as a result, file a claimfor compensation.When attendingmeetings of the International
Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC), the Administrator maintains contact and dialogue with
delegates representing international organizations and government agencies of IOPC member states.
In the fiscal year covered by this report, it is noteworthy that the outreach initiatives have included
a number of international visits. There is growing interest in the operation of the Canadian domestic
fund, notably in the Republic of Korea, China, Japan and, lately, in the Russian Federation.
Annual Conference of the Shipping Federation of Canada
On April 1, 2009, the Administrator attended the annual conference of the Shipping Federation of
Canada inMontreal. This association, as its website notes, is incorporated byAct of Parliament and
aims to represent and promote the interests of ship operators and agents involved in Canada’s world
trade. It includes in its objectives the promotion of an environmentally sustainable and quality–oriented
transportation system.Accordingly, the Administrator considers familiarity with the membership of
this association to be a valuable source of contacts, especially where international shipping may be
involved in ship-source oil pollution incidents.
At the invitation ofMr. John O’Connor, a member of the teaching staff in the Faculty of Law,McGill
University, the Administrator attended lectures at the University on April 1, 2009 and again on
March 31, 2010, to give law students an account of the operations of the SOPF. His remarks were
in the context of a lecture on the operation of the national and international regime of liability and
compensation for ship-source oil pollution. The talk on both occasions proved to be a most instructive,
both for the students and for the Administrator, provoking a number of interesting questions from
students. The Administrator hopes that this initiative will be repeated in the future as a means of
raising awareness of future lawyers in this very specialized field of maritime law. Special thanks
go to Mr. O’Connor for organizing this initiative.
Canadian Maritime Law Association
The Administrator continues to followclosely the activities of the CanadianMaritime LawAssociation.
As in the past, on April 16, 2009, the Administrator attended the meeting of members of the
Association and governmental officials, organized under the auspices of Transport Canada.Where
appropriate, the Administrator also attends open meetings organized by the Association on current
trends in Canadian maritime law. Those meetings also afford opportunities to keep in touch with the
membership of the Association.
Canadian Marine Advisory Council (National)
The Canadian Marine Advisory Council (CMAC) is Transport Canada’s national consultative body
for marine matters. CMAC held its semi-annual meetings in Ottawa from April 27 to 30 and from
November 3 to 5, 2009. The Administrator and a marine consultant engaged by the Fund, Captain
George Legge, attended some of the meetings. The Administrator follows with interest the ongoing
discussion on all marine environmental issues addressed at the national CMAC sessions. He keeps
abreast of the proposed regulatory framework for the prevention of oil pollution from ships of all
classes. Of particular interest are the deliberations of the Standing Committee on the Environment.
The Committee provides a forum for consultation and information sharing on such issues as oil pollution
prevention and oil spill response.Also of interest are the discussions in the working group on
marine oil pollution.
Below are a number of subjects reported on at CMAC that are of particular interest to the Administrator.
Marine Waste Disposal
During theNovember 2009 session Transport Canada reported to CMAC that it is continuing to develop
and implement a waste management strategy for ships and shore-based facilities. Marine Safety
gave a presentation on the waste survey it is currently undertaking with the Department of Public
Works and Services Canada to estimate the amount of waste generated by commercial ships.
Government Consulting Services has been contracted to conduct the survey. The scope of the survey
will include sewage, greywater, oily bilge water and other ship-generated machinery residual oils.
The study will not, however, include pleasure craft, fishing vessels and floating production storage
and offloading vessels operated by the offshore oil exploration industry. The data collected will be used
to inform proponents of new port development of the requirements for waste reception facilities.
When consultation with themarine industry is completed, the report will be circulated to themembers
of the CMAC Standing Committee on the Environment. It will be available on the CMAC website.
During discussion, it was noted that Transport Canada recognizes the importance of having adequate
facilities in Canadian ports to receive engine room oily waste and other residual oils generated by
ships. From an economic and practical standpoint, all Canadian port reception facilities have to be
conveniently located to meet the operational requirements of the ship without undue delay. The reception
facilities must also be affordable for all classes of ships. In order to ensure compliance with
the MARPOL oil discharge regulations, in 2006 Transport Canada completed a study of waste reception
facilities in Canadian ports. The study found that the facilities provided by commercial operators
were adequate, but challenges lay ahead with port expansion and new terminals in remote
areas. Concerns were raised about challenges associated with future oil and gas exploration in the
Arctic. It seems that there are no waste disposal facilities in the high Arctic. Marine operators are
apparently using community dumps. This issue will be addressed by the waste management study.
East Coast Environmental Risk Study
During the April 2009 CMAC meetings, Transport Canada presented information on the status of
the ongoing study to assess the environmental risk associated with the transportation of oil along the
southern coast of Newfoundland. Transport Canada, in partnership with the Department of Fisheries
and Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard, undertook this study in 2005 to assess the risk of an accidental
oil spill. For the purpose of the study, federal officials worked in collaboration with the
Provincial Department of the Environment and the local offshore marine industry, including other
environmental groups. It was recognized that, due to the increase in offshore oil exploration and production
on the east coast, tanker traffic was rising significantly, particularly in the Placentia Bay
area. Some of the factors under review were, the increase in marine traffic, the size, age, and number
of tankers transiting the coastal waters, the vessel traffic routing and management system, oil spill
probability assessments, and the potential impact of oil spills on the marine environment.
During 2009, town hall meetings were held in communities along the coast with presentations about
the study. Meetings were also held with targeted stakeholder groups, such as the oil and gas industry
associations and representatives of the fishing industry, including environmental organizations. As
a result of the consultation process, 25 recommendations were received from stakeholders and the
general public. Transport Canada’s senior management are currently reviewing the recommendation.
During the November session of CMAC an update was provided on the status of the Arctic Waters
Pollution Prevention Act. The membership was advised that Bill C-3, an Act to amend the Arctic
Waters Pollution Prevention Act, received Royal Assent on June 11, 2009, and came into force on
August 1, 2009. The amendments enable Canada to extend its jurisdiction inArctic water from 100
nautical miles to 200 nautical miles from its baselines of the territorial sea.
National Aerial Surveillance Program
Transport Canada provided a presentation of this subject. Federal government departments and
agencies are using available resources to combat oil pollution caused by passing ships. Transport
Canada is responsible for the overall direction and coordination of the NationalAerial Surveillance
Program (NASP). The objectives of the NASP include enforcement of the pollution prevention regulations,
deterrence, emergency response and program support for other government departments
and federal agencies, such as the CCG, Environment Canada, and the Royal CanadianMounted Police.
The Administrator is aware that the NASP is an essential component of the federal oil pollution
prevention program. During the CMAC sessions in April the membership was provided with an
overview of the goals and objectives of the NASP. The presentation addressed the effectiveness of
the ongoing operational partnership arrangements among Transport Canada, Environment Canada,
Fisheries and Oceans, Canadian Coast Guard and other government agencies.
At the November session, Transport Canada reported it has finished modernizing three maritime surveillance
aircraft with state-of-the-art remote sensors to strengthen the aircrafts’ overall surveillance
capability. Of these three aircraft two are Dash 8s, one is located in Moncton and the other in Vancouver.
One Dash 7 is based in Ottawa and provides surveillance on the Great Lakes andArctic waters.
The new Dash 7 was fully equipped with remote sensors and deployed forArctic surveillance during
the 2009 shipping season. In addition to the Dash 7 and 8 aircraft, there is a chartered Beachcraft
King Air 200 located in St. John’s. This aircraft is contracted for fisheries patrol off the coast of
Newfoundland. It is also multi-tasked or conducts dedicated oil pollution surveillance flights as
may be required.
Through the air surveillance program, Canada is striving to send a strong message that our marine
environment must be protected. In all coastal areas the aircraft are a significant deterrent to wouldbe
polluters. Transport Canada reported at the November session that a Cypriot-registered vessel was
the first to be prosecuted from evidence collected by air surveillance with the new technology
installed on the Dash 7 aircraft. This case resulted in a fine of $40,000 being directed to the
Environmental Damages Fund.
The Administrator appreciates being invited to participate in the deliberations of the national CMAC
Canadian Marine Advisory Council (Northern)
The Administrator was invited to attend the Regional Canadian Marine Advisory Council (Northern
CMAC) meetings held in Quebec City from May 5 to 6, 2009, and inYellowknife, Northwest Territories
from October 21 to 22, 2009. Due to prior engagements, the Administrator was unable to
attend personally, but was represented by a marine consultant engaged by the Fund. The CMAC-N
meetings are held semi-annually and usually take place in different northern communities. The participants
at these CMAC-N meetings represent federal and territorial governments including a range
of operators from the northern shipping industry. Discussions are co-chaired by representatives of
the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canadian Coast Guard Central and Arctic Regions), and
Transport Canada Marine Services, Prairie and Northern Regions.
Vessel Traffic Services
During the May session, Transport Canada advised that work continues on developing the proposed
Northern Canada Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) Regulations, otherwise known as the mandatory
NORDREG. These new regulations, which are not yet in force, are intended to promote safe and efficient
navigation and environmental protection, and support the commitment to establish mandatory
vessel reporting in Canada’s northern waters.When in force, the regulations will establish a traffic
service zone for waters of northern Canada. They will prescribe which vessels must obtain clearance
to enter, proceed within, or depart from the VTS zone.
Transport Canada recognizes that a large percentage of vessels operating in Arctic water are currently
reporting into NORDREG on a voluntary basis because of the advantages that the service provides.
Arctic Environmental Response
At the October meetings a presenter provided an overview of the CCG’s responsibilities and contingency
plans to respond to a marine oil spill in the Arctic. The CCG is the lead federal agency for
preparedness and response throughout the region north of 60 degrees latitude. In this respect, the
CCG has developed individual response strategies for local communities. This includes storing of
equipment as well as providing training to local people on the use of the equipment in order to
respond to spill incidents.
There was discussion about the type and amount of oil pollution clean-up equipment currently stored
at Churchill, Iqaluit and Tuktoyoktuk, including air transportable spill response equipment at the
CCG depot in Hay River, Northwest Territories. The meeting was advised that in addition to existing
caches of equipment, CCG has designed new deployable site specific Arctic Community packs of
clean-up equipment, which will be deployed throughout Arctic communities during the current
fiscal year. The equipment will be stored in 55 containers that will be located in different communities.
For example, in total, the containers will store over 50,000 feet of oil containment boom,
plus other oil pollution counter-measures equipment.Moreover, the CCG icebreakers will continue
to carry first-response spill equipment and the crew members are trained in its use.
As reported in previous Annual Reports, shipowners do not have contractual arrangements with a
certified response organization during operations in Arctic water. In fact, there are no response
organizations for waters north of 60 degrees latitude. TheArctic sealift operators consider that there
is a risk that an oil spill may occur during fuel oil transfer by floating hose from ship to shore in a
number of communities. To mitigate this risk, the commercial oil tankers, which are deployed for
fuel delivery during the annual sealift operations, are equipped with oil pollution counter-measures
equipment. The fuel transfer hoses and other lightering equipment utilized by these ships are
designed specifically for Canadian Arctic operations.
In addition to the training provided to the ship’s personnel before departure from southern ports, the
oil tanker operators conduct oil spill exercises and pollution prevention deployment drills upon arrival
on-site in the northern communities. These training exercises are designed to provide an opportunity
for the ship’s crew to practice oil spill equipment deployment under real conditions when
oil is pumped ashore through floating hoses, and during barge off-loading activities. Some of the pollution
counter-measures equipment used during these exercises is provided by the Canadian Coast
Guard from the Quebec Region. In addition, equipment is provided by La Fédération des cooperatives
du Nouveau-Québec. Representatives of FCNQ and the Nunavik government are on hand during
the oil spill exercises as observers. Further, Transport Canada arranges for a Ship Safety Inspector
to be present at the training evolutions.
Transport Canada informed attendees at CMAC about progress on the Canada Shipping Act, 2001,
regulatory reform project, including the importance of public consultations. Participants were reminded
that specific issues that they would like addressed will be brought to the attention of the appropriate
Standing Committee of the National CMAC Secretariat.
A representative of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR), Government of
the Northwest Territories (GNWT) presented and read a paper that GNWT would like to have on
record with respect to issues relating to the freezing-in of fuel laden petroleum barges in ice. This
freezing-in is done across the Northwest Territories for the purpose of over-wintering fuel storage
in large quantities. Specifically, ENR states that it does not support freezing-in fuel laden petroleum
barges, except in the case of an emergency where no reasonable alternative exists. ENR proposes
that wide consultation is required with communities, agencies, regulators, and other stakeholders
prior to the development of guidelines or regulations for this practice.
During the meetings, both in Quebec and inYellowknife, presentations were made by several shipping
companies about the annual sealift operations, and the delivery of oil products to Arctic communities.
Also, the participants provided an overview of the oil spill exercises conducted regularly
by the sealift shipping companies.
The Administrator has a direct interest in becoming more aware of the issues surrounding the transportation
by sea of oil products throughout the High Arctic.
Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program
The Administrator was represented by a marine consultant at the 32nd Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program
(AMOP) technical seminar held in Vancouver from June 9 to 11, 2009. These technical seminars
on environmental contamination and response are sponsored by the science and technology
branch of Environment Canada. The objective is to improve the knowledge base and technology
for combating Arctic and marine oil spills. It is an international technical forum about oil spills in
any environment as well as other oil spill-related topics. There were discussions during the threeday
conference about a broad range of technical development, operational approaches and contingency
The presentation, Waste Management Guidelines for Remote Arctic Regions, emphasized that oil
spill response operations in remote areas can generate large volumes of oily and operational waste
materials that must be transferred and either recycled or disposed. The amount of waste generated
by shoreline treatment response operations is not directly related to the volume of spilled oil nor to
the location. It is a function of methods selected by the spill management team.Arguments were presented
about allowing natural recovery. The presentation summarized a study conducted by a working
group of theArctic Council to develop general guidelines and strategies for oil spill management
inArctic Regions.As a result, aWasteManagement Calculator as a user’s guide (computer software)
was developed as a planning tool to help decision makers.
Other programs included case studies and recent oil spill experiences, such as the presentations by
a representative of the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. One of these presentations
addressed the difficulties, financial and operational, of engaging volunteers at major spills –
the Hebei Spirit incident in Korea was mentioned as an example. Similar problems were experienced
in the recent San Francisco Bay incident involving the Cosco Busan. Volunteers have to be provided
with safety clothing at considerable cost and without training their efforts were not necessarily
considered worthwhile and cost-effective.
The displays provided at the meetings were informative and they covered a range of oil pollution
clean-up equipment and latest technologies. This up-to-date information is valuable for the Administrator
in the process of investigating and assessing claims filed with the Fund. The seminar coordinator
expressed appreciation that the Fund was again represented at the Environment Canada
Canadian Coast Guard Equipment Facilities
During the AMOP technical seminar held in Vancouver the marine consultant working for the
Administrator took advantage of the opportunity to visit the CCG’s marine environment equipment
storage facility in Richmond. The depot maintains an inventory of clean-up equipment, containment
barges and auxiliary equipment utilized in the Pacific Region to contain and recover oil at sea
and from contaminated beaches. The inventory includes booms, skimmers, boats, sea-trucks, containment
barges and other storage tanks for recovered waste oil. There is also a large amount of
shoreline clean-up treatment equipment and mobile command communication units. The equipment
used in oil spill incidents out off the Richmond base is standardized with that of other depots
in the Pacific Region, such as at the CCG base inVictoria. This standardization reduces training requirements
and facilitates deployment of resources to react to oil spills throughout the region.
The first-hand knowledge and information obtained during these visits are very beneficial. The
Administrator is interested in visiting other Coast Guard regions and continuing the ongoing
cooperation and working relationship between both agencies.
Canada-U.S. Oil Spill FinanceWorkshop
The Administrator was invited to present a paper on the operations of the SOPF at the above mentioned
workshop in Seattle, July 22 and 23, 2009. The workshop was attended by representatives of
the U.S. Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, set up under the Oil PollutionAct of 1990 (OPA 90), members
of the U.S. Coast Guard, as well as members of the Canadian Coast Guard.Although the U.S. is not
a party to the international regime, a representative of the IOPC Fund was also in attendance. This
was appropriate, since in the event of major trans-frontier oil spill caused by a tanker, the IOPC
Fund would be available for Canadian claimants.
The workshop proved to be most instructive, highlighting the basic differences between the Canadian
regime of liability and compensation, which is closely tied to the international regime, and the U.S.
regime which, in its current version, was established after the Exxon Valdez incident of 1989. Those
differences are likely to be a significant factor in the event of trans-frontier oil spills caused by ships.
One of the chief differences between the U.S. regime and the Canadian regime, at least from the perspective
of the SOPF, is that the Oil Spill Liability Fund can finance response measures in advance
of any claim being made. The SOPF, like the IOPC Fund, on the other hand, are essentially claims
based funds. This means that in Canada the costs and expenses for response measures, for example,
by the Canadian Coast Guard, must be incurred before they become eligible for submission as a
claim either against the SOPF and, where appropriate, the IOPC Fund.
These and other differences, for example, in the realm of environmental damage, between the two
regimes are worth some reflection with a view to finding ways and means to reduce their impact in
the event of a major oil spill of which, luckily, up until this point in time there have been very few.
Future workshops are planned and the Administrator, if invited, intends to participate.
Derelict and Abandoned Vessels
In past reports, the Administrator has regularly drawn attention to the problem of derelict and abandoned
vessels. The problem is particularly acute in small craft harbours, which have only limited
financial resources at their disposal to address the problem of vessels abandoned in their harbours.
This problem has been raised with the Administrator by various parties on a number of occasions.
In July the Administrator met with representatives of the Small Craft HarboursAssociation of British
Columbia in Vancouver to discuss the issue. While no solution was identified, the Administrator
did gain further insight into the problem and has offered to meet again with representatives to explore
options. Many of these vessels are ticking time bombs that if not dealt with in a timely fashion will
become a hazard to the environment. As the condition of these vessels deteriorates, they also raise
safety issues. Failure to act in a timely fashion is therefore likely to increase the costs of eventual
measures that must be taken to avoid environmental damage.
Visit to China
As already mentioned, there is a growing interest abroad in the operations of the Canadian fund.As
the Administrator has learnt, serious consideration is being given in some jurisdictions for the setting
up of a domestic fund. The Administrator attended the Shanghai International Maritime Forum,
held from September 15 and 16, 2009. The organizers of the forum requested the attendance of the
Administrator to present a paper on the operations of the SOPF. The paper covers the history of the
Canadian fund, outlines the claims handling procedures of the fund and describes the interrelationship
of the Canadian fund with the IOPC Fund. The paper was well received and has been included
in the conference papers.
At a meeting in Beijing, prior to the Forum, with the Chinese Academy of Transportation Sciences
the Administrator provided further details on the operation of the SOPF. The Administrator learnt
that the Chinese government is quite far advanced in plans to set up its own domestic fund. From
the documentation that was provided to the Administrator it is clear that the Chinese fund will follow
closely the claims criteria established by the IOPC Fund even though there is no immediate plan for
China to join the international regime. It is of interest, however, that Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region is a member of the IOPC Fund.
Further details on Chinese plans for a domestic fund are provided in the next section.
Visit of the Delegation from the China Academy of Transportation Science and Institutes of the Ministry of Transportation
On October 19, 2009, a delegation consisting of 14 people visited Ottawa from the ChinaAcademy
of Transportation Science, and other institutes of theMinistry of Transportation in Beijing. The delegation
was hosted jointly by the Administrator and Transport Canada.
The purpose of the visit was to study first-hand Canada’s domestic Ship-source Oil Pollution Fund.
The Administrator was advised that the ChinaAcademy of Transportation Science was drafting regulations
for the establishment of a domestic ship-source oil pollution compensation fund. It would
be funded by contributions from receivers of persistent oil cargoes (or their agents) which have been
transported by sea to a Chinese port. It is understood that the regulations would cover any shipsourced
pollution and any ship-related operation that causes, or may cause, pollution damage in
waters under the jurisdiction of the People’s Republic of China.
The delegation provided the Administrator in advance with an overview of the subjects they would
like to discuss. These subjects addressed basic information, including history of the Fund, administrative
regulations, organizational structure, role and responsibilities and operational management
procedures. In addition, the subjects covered compensation principles and the scope and nature of
During the meeting with the delegation, the separate power-point presentations covered a general
summary of the Canadian marine liability and shipping laws, and Canada’s oil pollution compensation
regime. Representatives from Transport Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard assisted with
responses to the written questions submitted by the China Academy of Transportation Science.
The visit ended with a tour of SOPF offices where members of the Chinese delegation had further
opportunity to ask questions on the general operations of the Fund. The leader of the delegation,
Mr. Zhuang Changbo, Deputy Director General of the Academy of Transportation, expressed his
appreciation, on behalf of the delegation, saying that all members were quite pleased with the meeting
and had found it worthwhile and very informative.
Regional Environmental Emergency Team Conference
The Administrator was represented by a marine consultant at the 36th Atlantic Regional Environmental
Emergency Team (REET) conference held in Moncton, New Brunswick, on October 28 and
29, 2009. The conference focused on perspectives about oil spill incidents, technology updates,
counter-measures, case studies, lessons learned, crisis communication, and international contingency
planning. The participants, industry and government, represented a broad scope of expertise
currently available to respond during environmental emergencies, including ship-source oil spills.
By way of background, REET includes a number of federal, provincial, First Nations, municipal and
other agencies which have expertise, information and responsibilities relevant to environmental
emergencies and environmental protection. Private industry and industry associations also participate
in REET as they have an interest in ensuring that trained and equipped personnel are available to deal
with oil spills when they occur.
During an active response operation, a senior manager of Environment Canada normally chairs
the REET meetings, which provide the On-Scene Commander from the Canadian Coast Guard, or
the response organization, with consolidated environmental and scientific information such as spill
movement, trajectory forecasts, and advice respecting weather forecast. In addition, REET may
approve the use of chemical dispersion and other shoreline treatment techniques.
The Administrator appreciates being invited to participate in the REET conferences. Frequently,
the Administrator will give a presentation during the meetings to explain the mandate of the Shipsource
Oil Pollution Fund, and address the sort of documentation required when a claimant files a
claim with the Fund.
On-Scene Commander Course
At the invitation of the Canadian Coast Guard College, the Administrator attended the On-Scene
Commander (OSC) Course held in Sydney, Nova Scotia in November, 2009. The Administrator
provided information on the availability of the SOPF for claims based on costs and expenses for
responding to ship-source oil spills in Canada. The one-week OSC course is designed for on-scene
commanders responsible for coordinating and directing the overall response to marine pollution
incidents. The object is to make participants, drawn both from the Canadian Coast Guard and from
industry, familiar with the types of plans, processes, organizational structures and resources required
to respond to major incidents that could threaten the environment. The course focuses on anticipating
and preparing on-scene commanders for the demands and pressures that arise during major or
moderate spills.An obvious element of any oil spill incident is the subsequent actions to recover the
costs and expenses associated with response activities.
The Administrator provided information on the history of the Canadian fund since its establishment
in 1973, emphasizing its evolution from a fund essentially of last resort to its current status as a
fund of first resort. The Administrator noted that the Canadian fund is set up for the benefit of
claimants, not for the shipowner who bear prime responsibility for spill caused by their ships. The
fundamental principle on which the Canadian regime, contained in the Marine Liability Act, is based
remains the “polluter pays” principle. The Administrator also stressed the point that good record
keeping is essential for the successful prosecution of a claim. Where the Administrator makes an
offer of compensation, he is bound to take all reasonable steps to recover the amount paid out of the
fund from the party (usually the shipowner) responsible for the spill. He therefore looks to the
claimant for proof of the claim. Hence the importance of good record keeping, which should commence
as soon as the decision is made to take response measures.
The Administrator also sat on a panel, together with representatives from the Coast Guard Emergency
Response Unit, the International Tanker Owners Oil Pollution Federation and the British
Coastguard Administration to respond to questions from course participants on cost recovery in
Canada and worldwide. All in all, the Administrator found the course to be a useful exercise and a
very good opportunity to get to know key players that would be involved in the event of a major oil
spill in Canada.
Meeting with the Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard
In January the Administrator met with the Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard and his
deputy to discuss a variety of subjects of mutual interest. Regular contact with senior management
of the Coast Guard is considered beneficial, given that many claims handled by the SOPF originate
with the Coast Guard.